1. LAMAS Transactions welcomes articles presenting detailed original research into any aspect of the archaeology and history of the Greater London area, on the understanding that the paper has not been previously published and is not concurrently submitted for publication elsewhere. It is recommended that the text of unfunded history and archaeology articles should normally not exceed 8,000 words in length and it is expected that longer research articles by private individuals will provide some level of funding. Shorter articles and notices are welcome. The accepted word length for articles is at the discretion of the appropriate editor. This does not affect reports or research papers from commercial archaeology units or similar where funding is normally provided. In addition, it is possible to publish some sections as a PDF supplement to the main article made available on the Society's website. Prospective authors are invited to discuss possible papers with the relevant editor at an early stage, including the textual and illustrative content prior to submission. Contributions should be sent to the appropriate Archaeology or History Editor:

    Hon Archaeological Editor
    Bruce Watson
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    Hon History Editor
    Maggie Bolton&nbsp
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    Articles published in the Transactions will be uploaded to the Society’s website within three years of publication in accordance with the Society’s green open access policy.
    LAMAS also publishes an occasional series of Special Papers for monograph length reports or collections of papers. For further details contact Special Papers Editor: John Schofield, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

  2. Reports or research papers from commercial archaeology units or similar are normally required to come with funding at the rate of £45 a page (to calculate length: c.750 words = 1 page; total no. of tables/figures can be divided by 1.5 to give approx. no. of pages in Transactions); the inclusion of colour images will increase the page cost. The requirement for colour should be discussed with the Editors on submission.

  3. All papers will be read by a referee. Although suggested changes and amendments will be discussed with authors, the Editors reserve the right to make reasonable changes without consultation.

  4. All authors will be required to sign a Copyright form and are advised that it is their responsibility to obtain written permission from copyright holders of any text, line art or photographs they wish to use in their article; this should be for print and subsequent electronic publication. Permission in writing is also required to use illustrative material from record offices, libraries and museum collections, whether or not in copyright. It is therefore also the author’s responsibility to cover the cost of any associated reproduction fees. Copies of your written permissions (emails are permissible) must be included with your final submission. Articles without copyright permissions will not be accepted for publication.

  5. Digital submission (by e-mail or on CD) is usual; this should be in a format compatible with WORD. If using WORD Track Changes authors should ensure that they ‘Accept all changes’ before submission. A clean print-out should also be supplied for editorial use; this should be on A4 paper, printed on one side only, in double spacing throughout, with generous margins all round, figure and table positions should be noted in the margin or indicated clearly in the text. The electronic and hard copy should be identical. Tables should be supplied in a separate file with a clear print-out on separate sheets. Final figures should be provided in electronic form on CD with print-outs (further specifications are given below). Final high-resolution files will be requested after the editorial stages have been completed.

  6. Authors will be sent page proofs of their article for checking. Only essential corrections should be made at the page proof stage since printers levy high charges for author’s corrections. It is at the Editor's discretion that the author may be charged for proof corrections, in particular, changes made to figures (see below, 'Illustrations').

  7. Authors will receive a pdf of their published article.


  1. All papers should start with a summary of their aims, main points and conclusions.
  2. If appropriate, include APPENDICES, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, NOTES and BIBLIOGRAPHY, in that order, at the end of the article.
  3. The author’s e-mail address should be included at the end of the article, before the NOTES.
  4. The heading hierarchy in Transactions is: BOLD CAPS; Bold Italic: Initial Capitals on Main Words; Italic: Initial Capitals on Main Words
  5. Use only one blank space after a full stop or other punctuation. Only use the ampersand (&) in bibliographical references.
  6. Capitals should normally be used for buildings — St Paul’s Cathedral; Westminster Abbey; Whitehall Palace — and for titles or offices — Sir Christopher Wren; King George III; Lord Nelson; Archbishop Laud — but when referring to ‘the king’ or ‘the archbishop’ use lower case.
    Distinguish between the Continent (ie Europe) and other continents. Note also the use of Second World War, and the City when referring to the ancient City of London.
    Fig, Pl, and No., should be used only to denote items in the present volume; use fig, pl, and no. when referring to other works.
  7. When referring to archaeological and historical periods, use upper case — Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman, Saxon, Norman, Angevin, Tudor etc, but use lower case for medieval and post-medieval.
    BC should always follow the date and AD precede it. Dates up to 1000 are preceded by AD (ie AD 886), but AD is not necessary after 1000.
  8. When referring to radiocarbon dates in the text cite calibrated date, ie 1260–970 cal BC, then in an endnote add the laboratory reference, the calibration curve or programme used and the uncalibrated date eg GrA-32964, 2900±35 BP. This allows the future recalibration of the date.
  9. Cardinal points (north, south, north-west etc) should be spelled out in the text, but indicated by capital letters without full points or hyphens in tables and appendices such as gazetteers: N, NE, NNE.
  10. All abbreviations from Latin are in italics, with no full stops. The exception is c. (circa); otherwise qv (quod vide); etc (et cetera); eg (exempli gratia); et al (et alii); ibid (ibidem); ie (id est). Abbreviations from English words are not in italics and only No. (Number) has a full stop; otherwise Nos (Numbers); Fig (Figure); Figs (Figures); Pl (Plate); Pls (Plates); MS (manuscript); MSS (manuscripts); pers comm (personal communication); fol (folio); fols.
  11. English spelling is preferred to American, ie ‘ise’ rather than ‘ize’: organise, specialise. Roman place-names are not italicised, eg Londinium.
  12. Hyphens should be used as little as possible. Except for very unusual compounds, ‘re’ words are not hyphenated: reused; reworked; reorganised.
    Compound adjectives comprising numerals have a hyphen after the numeral: a 10m-long plank; and note, a mid-2nd-century building.
    Otherwise compound nouns or adjectives have hyphens only if there is a possibility of ambiguity: make-up; top-plate; cross-brace.
  13. Units of measurement never have full stops: m; mm; ha; kg (note plural =kg not kgs); so too OD (Ordnance Datum). All these follow their numbers without an intervening space, but note 25 lb.
    The metric system should normally be used for all measurements in archaeological articles but imperial measurements may be added in brackets if this seems useful (as, for example, in the description of a building originally built in some multiple of a foot). In history papers, where appropriate, pre-decimal sums of money and original land measurements may be used. In all articles where historical documents are cited the original land measurements (eg acres, yards, feet) and pre-decimal sums of money should be used; metric equivalents may be added in brackets if appropriate.
  14. With numbers, if the context is ‘precise’, use words for one to ten and numerals thereafter: 11, 123, 1,234, 1,234,567; note that scales given in captions are expressed, for example, 1:1000, 1: 10,000. If the context is ‘loose’, use words throughout: over a hundred soldiers; nearly two million people. The same rules apply to ordinals: first, tenth, 11th, 20th, 175th; the ‘th’ should not be superscript. For centuries use numbers throughout: 1st century, 10th century, 19th century. For dates use cardinal numbers, expressed as 2 January 1762 (not 2nd Jan., 1762).
    Periods of time should be written numerically: 1930s, not 1930’s.
    When writing decimals, normally use the minimum number of decimal places: 1.2m (not 1.20); 5kg (not 5.0). But where the degree of accuracy has been stated explicitly, use a consistent number of decimal places: 1.5–2.0m; from +10.08m to +11.00m OD; weights of 5.000, 4.927 and 3.989kg respectively.
    In page and figure references, where a range of numbers appears, use the full number 1 to 20 and minimum necessary thereafter: 5–10; 10–15; 15–20; 20–5; 20–30; 100–5; 100–25; 100–200. Note in the teens: 15–18, 311–19.
    Dates AD should be similarly shown, eg 1834–68, 1911–19.
  15. Percentagesshould be indicated thus: %.
  16. Short quotations should be in roman with inverted commas. Longer quotations (in excess of two lines) should be inset and separated from the text by a line space above and below; they should be in roman but without inverted commas. Single inverted commas should always be used, except for a quotation within a quotation where double inverted commas should be used. Commas and other punctuation at the end of a quotation and not part of the original should be placed outside the final inverted comma.
    In quoting extracts from printed sources the original should be followed for spelling, punctuation and capitals.
    In quoting extracts from documents the original spelling should be followed in all cases, except that the normal abbreviations used in medieval and later hands should be extended between square brackets. In the case of place-names whose extension is doubtful it is permissible to use a superior comma to follow the last certain letter. The capitals and punctuation (unless the latter is quite clear and consistent in the original) should conform to modern practice.
  17. LAMAS Transactions and Special Papers do not use footnotes. Endnotes may be used for references to unpublished documents (see below) and to provide extra information. If using endnotes, the superscript number should be placed after the comma or period. It is preferable to use the autonumbered endnote system in WORD.

Additionally, for Archaeological Papers

  1. Natural geology (drift or solid) should be described according to the British Geological Survey and Ordnance Datum (OD) heights must be provided for key strata.
  2. Reference to the Museum of London conventions for Roman and post-Roman ceramics and building material should be included in the introduction if any of these codes are mentioned in the text. The current URL to the MOLA Resource Library should be given in an endnote. Note that these conventions do not include prehistoric or Saxon ceramics.
  3. Ideally an excavated sequence should be explained under a series of chronological headings, each of which should include a date range.
  4. If there are separate reports on specialist material such as ceramics or animal bones, then these reports need to be cross-referenced to the narrative account of the site sequence and discussion.
  5. Please refer to context numbers within square brackets (eg [1]), and all accessioned or small finds within angled brackets (eg <1>). These conventions are widely used but can be explained when first used in an article or in the introduction if the author(s) wishes.
  6. All important features, buildings etc, need to be referenced to at least one figure. If material is not illustrated for some reason then this should be stated in the text.
  7. Captions for site photographs should include the direction of view (unless it is vertical) and size of any scale: Fig 12. Brick-lined drain [12], view looking south (1m scale). Do not include descriptive qualifiers in captions eg ‘plan of’, ‘photograph of’, ‘drawing of’.
  8. All finds photographs should have a scale bar unless the dimension(s) of the object(s) is cited in the caption (eg length 35mm). If more than one or two objects are illustrated then these items need to be identified by a number or letter code and listed in the caption. If the context and other details of these objects are listed in either a table or catalogue, then this should be stated in the caption, and if not then the relevant context details should be cited in the caption: Fig 27. Post-medieval glassware. Key: 1. Base of pedestal goblet <24> from [236] fill of brick-lined well [248]. In the case of illustrated clay tobacco pipes either the AO (Atkinson & Oswald) or O (Oswald) classification numbers should be cited in the caption.
  9. For ceramics figures or photographs, unless the vessel fabrics and context details etc are listed in either a table or catalogue they need to be cited in the caption (not the text): Fig 30. Post-medieval pottery. Key: 1. Early post-medieval calcareous (PMREC) cauldron from fill [153] of pit [154].
  10. Captions for finds drawings should include the final reproduction scale.


LAMAS will consider the publication, in PDF format, of material which is supplementary to articles submitted for inclusion in Transactions. Supplements will be made available through the LAMAS website alongside PDF copies of the published Transactions article. All material submitted will be included in the copyright agreement for the main article and authors must therefore ensure they have the necessary permissions in place. Authors’ enquiries regarding the submission of material for publication as a PDF supplement should be made in the first instance to the Hon Archaeological Editor or the Hon History Editor. Alternatively, the Editors may suggest that sections of an article submitted to Transactions would be more suitable for inclusion in a supplement rather than the printed volume; this will normally be on the grounds of length or technical content. Articles published in Transactions must, however, be self-contained ‘standalone’ contributions: PDF supplements should provide additional supporting material which would otherwise not necessarily be included. Supplements should therefore contain data such as technical appendices, tables, specialist reports or further illustrative material (drawings and photographs).

Other PDFs

In exceptional circumstances, LAMAS may from time to time consider publishing standalone articles other than Transactions supplements in PDF format, where it is considered that there are good reasons to do so. Enquiries should be made to the Hon Archaeological Editor or Hon History Editor.

Content and Formatting

All text, figures and tables for inclusion in supplements should be submitted as usual to the Hon Editors at the same time as the main article and will be refereed and edited in the same way. The format of submitted text, tables, captions, endnotes, bibliographic references and heading styles should follow Transactions conventions detailed on these webpages. As with Transaction articles, all text-based material should be supplied as Word documents, with text, captions and tables submitted as separate files. PDF supplements will have standalone endnotes and bibliographies. Table, figure and endnote numbers should follow on in sequence from those of the text published in Transactions unless agreed otherwise. Files should be suitably identified as appendices or supplements to distinguish them from material intended for Transactions. All figures (drawings and photographs) must be supplied as individual tiffs or jpegs and the use of colour is encouraged. PDF supplements will, however, be standard A4 layout: drawn figures intended for inclusion should therefore be designed with this in mind, whereas figures supplied for publication in Transactions must follow the specific guidelines on size set out in ‘Notes for Contributors’. Photographs will normally be reproduced as either half or quarter page images unless authors stipulate otherwise.

Funding and Publication Charges

From 2018, all developer-funded or fully grant-funded articles submitted to LAMAS for publication in Transactions will be charged at £50 per page and an additional £320 for each 32-page colour section. Supplementary material will be charged at the rate of £15 per page to cover formatting, editing and other costs. Authors of unfunded articles will not be charged, although contributors are encouraged to seek grant funding as a contribution towards costs.



  1. LAMAS Transactions and Special Papers both use the Harvard system of references for published works but not for documentary material. References inserted in the text should contain the author’s surname, date of publication, page and/or figure or plate number within parentheses: eg ‘... London example (Orton 1982, fig 18) ...’ In the case of two authors, use the ampersand: ‘Smith & Jones …’; in the case of three or more authors, use the form ‘Smith et al …’.
  2. There are a number of publications of historical documents that do not quite fit into the standard Harvard system and therefore they need to be separately considered. For example, Calendar of Letter Books, which in the text can be referred to as, eg, Cal Lbk G, 22, and in the Bibliography as Cal Lbk A–L: Calendar of Letter Books preserved among the archives of the Corporation of the City of London at the Guildhall: letter-books A–L (ed) R R Sharpe (11 vols) 1899–1912. This approach saves multiple entries in the bibliography.
    A similar approach can be adopted for the published vols of Calendar of Patent Rolls (Cal Pat R), Calendar of Charter Rolls (Cal Ch R), Calendar of Papal Letters (Cal Pap L), etc. The individual volumes are identified in the text by the dates of the material they cover, eg Cal Pat R 1399–1401, 91, rather than the year they were published. Each series can be collectively referenced in the bibliography as: Cal Pat R: Calendar of Patent Rolls (various volumes), London.
    In the case of some volumes there is a serious discrepancy between their original publication date and the pagination and published versions which are cited, eg Stow’s Survey of London; today most people use one of the modern publications of the 1603 text, the two most commonly used versions are:
    Stow, J, 1956 (1603) The Survey of London, H B Wheatley (ed), London
    Stow, J, 1908 (1603) A Survey of London 2 vols (reprinted 1971) C L Kingsford (ed), Oxford
    In the text vol 1 page 35, for instance, would be referenced thus: (Stow 1908, i, 35).
    There is a version of Kingsford's text available at British History Online.  This has a system of sectional references.  For example, for 'The wall about the Citie of London' the reference in the text would be (Stow 1908, 5-10) and in the bibliography:
    Stow, J, 1908 (1603) A Survey of London, C L Kingsford (ed), Oxford, (accessed 30 January 2016). This wording involves some changes to the format used on the British History Online website.
    In the case of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, there are various published versions available of this anonymous text, one of the most widely used is:
    Swanton, M, (ed & trans) 1996 The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, London.
  3. When citing unpublished documentary material in either historical or historic archaeological articles it is expected that for ease of reading these references will be listed as endnotes. Cite the title of the document concerned, the folio or page numbers referred to, its archive or library location and its complete reference number. The first time an archive or library is mentioned its title should be given in full and thereafter abbreviated eg:
    [first reference] Bridge House Rental 1460–1484: translation and transcript, fol 24, London Metropolitan Archives CLA/007/FN/02/060.
    [abbreviation] Bridge House Rental, fol 45.
  4. The references should be detailed in a comprehensive bibliography at the end of the article. The bibliography should be in the following form:
    (1) author(s) surname and initials (with no stops);
    (2) date of publication;
    (3) title of work in italic if a book, roman within inverted commas if an article (main words should be capitalised in book titles and lower case in articles). When references refer to a periodical, the title (italic), and the volume number (in arabic numerals) should also be supplied;
    (4) place of publication
    eg: Merrifield, R, 1987 The Archaeology of Ritual and Magic, London
    Jones, C D, 1968 ‘The development of Roman London’ Trans London Middlesex Archaeol Soc 37, 16–44
    When citing contributions within articles or monographs:
    Rielly, K, 1997 ‘The animal bones’ in G Malcolm ‘Excavations at Island Site Finsbury Pavement, London EC2’ Trans London Middlesex Archaeol Soc 48, 52–5
    When citing articles within a volume:
    Henig, M, 1996 ‘Sculptors from the west in London’ in J Bird, M Hassall & H Sheldon (eds) Interpreting Roman London: Papers in Memory of Hugh Chapman Oxbow Monograph 58, Oxford, 97–103
    When citing an article in the Transactions with a PDF supplement:
    Sudds, B, & Douglas, A, with Phillpotts, C, 2014 ‘Excavations at Crispin Street, Spitalfields: from Roman cemetery to post-medieval artillery ground’ Trans London Middlesex Archaeol Soc 65, 1–50 & PDF supplement
    and when citing a contribution within the PDF supplement:
    Jarrett, C, 2014 ‘The post-Roman pottery’ in B Sudds & A Douglas with C Phillpotts ‘Excavations at Crispin Street, Spitalfields: from Roman cemetery to post-medieval artillery ground’ Trans London Middlesex Archaeol Soc 65, PDF supplement, 5–6, (accessed 10 December 2015)
    Periodical titles should be abbreviated as laid down by the Council for British Archaeology — Monograph and series titles are given in full.
    Volume numbers should be in arabic not roman numerals. Do not include volume issue numbers when parts are numbered consecutively:
    Jeffries, N, 2012 ‘Late 13th-century household “clearance groups” on Gresham Street and the London Jewry’ London Archaeol 13, 127–31
    The bibliography must take the following order: (1) alphabetically by author’s surname, (2) alphabetically by initials, (3) chronologically. Joint publications should follow single-author publications; in the event of more than one work by the same author(s) in the same year, letters ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’ etc should be appended to the year:
    Smith, G, 1976 …
    Smith, G, 1985a …
    Smith, G, 1985b …
    Smith, J, 1957 …
    Smith, J, & Jones, G, 1954 …
  5. Internet references should be cited in Harvard style — eg ‘British Waterways 2010’ — and then included in the bibliography citing the full address of the website and the date accessed:
    Axworthy, R L, 2004 ‘Pulteney, Sir John (d. 1349)’ in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, (accessed 25 Aug 2015)
    Brooke, J, 1964 The History of Parliament Trust 1964–2015, (accessed 5 September 2015)
    Christopher, E, 2006 ‘Steal a handkerchief, see the world: the trans-oceanic voyaging of Thomas Limpus’ in A Curthoys & M Lake Connected Worlds: History in Trans-National Perspective, Canberra, 79; (accessed 30 December 2013)
    Executed Today, ‘1776: Benjamin Harley and Thomas Henman, Smugglerius?’ (accessed 27 May 2012)
    Old Bailey Proceedings Online, (accessed 20 April 2010)
    Page, W (ed), 1926 ‘Houses of Austin Canons: the Abbey of Lesnes or Westwood’ in Victoria County History Kent: Volume 2, London, 165–7, (accessed 22 March 2015)


Tables should be supplied in WORD format TABLE mode, saved in a separate file, not embedded in the text file. Table positions should be noted in the margin of the text print-out or indicated clearly in the text itself.


  1. The LAMAS Transactions page image area is 208 x 138mm (two columns each measuring 208 x 67mm). Figures and photographs (black and white or colour) can occupy a full page, a part page (double column width 138mm) or a single column (width 67mm). All images should be designed to be reduced to fit the available space and include a clear instruction of the final reduction size or scale. Fold-outs are to be avoided. The use of colour is welcomed but adds to the publication costs and therefore must be discussed at an early stage with the appropriate editor. Commercial archaeology units are normally required to cover the additional costs of colour printing.

  2. All illustrations should be supplied in a suitable electronic format on a CD with a printed copy of each file. Authors may be surcharged up to £75 per article for the cost of amending, montaging or replacing illustrations during production (that is, at proof stage). In the case of commercially funded articles, this fee will be charged in addition to the page publication costs.
    Files should be in Tiff (preferred) or Jpg (only secondarily) format. EPS and PDF files are also acceptable but content (including fonts used) should be encapsulated; if black and white they should be saved in greyscales or if colour in CMYK not RGB. Line drawings in particular should be saved at the highest resolution possible — ideally 1200 dpi or above. Images for reproduction in black and white can be submitted additionally in colour. All image files submitted should be edited and checked for contrast etc. PDF versions of figures and photographs are acceptable as part of a preliminary submission.

  3. All plans and maps should include a scale bar in metres and a north point (unless they are historical maps of uncertain scale). All sections should show an OD level and their orientation.

  4. Conventions used in phase plans (for conjecture etc) need to explained in the first relevant caption or a separate figure. Generally the found or excavated extent of features are best represented by a dark tone and their conjectured extent shown as a lighter one, making clear the difference between the two.
    All finds photographs should have a scale bar unless the dimension(s) of the object(s) is cited in the caption (eg length 35mm). If more than one or two objects are illustrated then these items need to be identified by a number or letter code and listed in the caption.
    All finds drawings must include a scale bar, and if more than one or two objects are illustrated then these items need to be identified by a number or letter code and listed in the caption, along with the final reproduction scale.

  5. Figure positions should be noted in the margin of the print-out or marked clearly in the text. Captions (max. 50 words) for all illustrations should be provided in a separate file .

  6. If the illustration proposed is still in copyright, it is the author’s responsibility to obtain permission to reproduce (both in print and on the Web) from the holder of the copyright. Permission in writing is also required to use illustrative material from record offices, libraries and museum collections, whether or not in copyright. Copies of your written permissions (emails are permissible) must be included with your submission.


Authors should ensure that they have all the necessary permissions to publish material submitted to Transactions in printed or electronic form. LAMAS is unable to obtain copyright on your behalf.

Your article will be published in the Transactions with sections in PDF format made available on the Society's website (as applicable). In addition, the whole of your Transactions article will be uploaded to the Society's website within three years of publication in accordance with the Society's green open access policy. This Author Licence signifies agreement to the Society making such arrangements.

As an author in Transactions you retain the copyright to your text. However, the journal will retain the rights to mark-up, design and implementation of each article — to reflect the work that we put in between submission and publication.

We ask authors to sign an Author Licence, which is non-exclusive, and clearly sets out who owns the rights to the article.

It is your responsibility to provide written permission from the copyright holders of any text, line art or photographs or any other work that you want to use in your article (permission in email form is permissable). Permission in writing (email form is permissible) is also required to use illustrative material from record offices, libraries and museum collections, whether or not in copyright. You must promise LAMAS that you have the required permissions.It is therefore also your responsibility to deal with any requests for reproduction fees.

The London and Middlesex Archaeological Society holds an agreement with the publisher H W Wilson, under which H W Wilson has the right to include elements of the Transactions in compilations on CD-Rom and hard copy, which are sold on a subscription basis. The Society receives a small royalty in consideration of this arrangement, which is re-applied to support the work of the Society. We ask you to ensure that, in securing rights and permissions to include any 3rd-party content in your contribution, you also make the party aware of the possibility of inclusion under this arrangement. You retain the right to exclude your contribution from this arrangement. If you would like to exercise this right, please contact the Archaeological or Local History Editor as appropriate.

Please click here for a printer friendly copy of the Author Licence to be completed, signed and sent to the Production Editor.

January 2020